Set up a simple(ish) HTTP/2 webserver on macOS
There have been moments where having HTTP/2 on localhost would have been handy. Over the years I have tried a few things and recently I found a way I liked. I tend to dislike having to install too many things, but for this, it seems impossible to avoid. My instructions are based on macOS Catalina (10.15) (for Safari), but should work for previous versions and future versions as well.
My steps were:
From the Terminal app, generate a self-signed certificate to use for SSL. (maybe change to the directory you’d like to store the certs in first?, in my case “/Users/oelna/.certificates”)
openssl req -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem
This will create two .pem files (without setting a password for the key, which I found invaluable on a local machine, since I don’t want to enter a password every time I start the server.)
During creation I chose to put in some reasonable values for country name, organization name and common name (“localhost.”).
I tried to figure out a way to do this with the Python built-in HTTP server, but couldn’t, so I begrudgingly installed twisted for Python 3.
pip3 install twisted
Depending on where you saved the .pem files generated earlier, you may have to adjust the paths for them in the following start command for twisted:
twistd -n web --path=. -c /Users/oelna/.certificates/cert.pem -k /Users/oelna/.certificates/key.pem --https=4433
The parameters are pretty self-explanatory: -c is the certificate location, -k is the key file location, –https is the port the server will listen on, and –path is your website root (Most of the time I run the command from the directory the files are in, so I just put . there (=current directory)
Twisted should start up and if it doesn’t fail, your site is ready for you at https://localhost:4433
Safari will complain, when you load the page, but you can click your way through.
Chrome is a completely different beast, though, and I have needed to make a few changes to how the certificates are created.
The instructions above worked well for me, but for Chrome I needed to go about it a little differently (sadly, more complicated). For this I used the instructions on Stackoverflow.
You need to become your own CA (“certificate authority”) and trust it on your machine. This fake CA will issue a certificate for localhost (which has to include something called subjectAltName). The resulting certificate for localhost also needs to be imported to Keychain and trusted for use with SSL. Let’s do it!
# generate the CA key and cert openssl genrsa -des3 -out myCA.key 2048 openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key myCA.key -sha256 -days 825 -out myCA.pem
Prepare this localhost.ext file beforehand:
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer basicConstraints=CA:FALSE extendedKeyUsage=serverAuth,clientAuth keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment subjectAltName = @alt_names [alt_names] DNS.1 = localhost IP.1 = 127.0.0.1
Next, generate a key and certificate signing request for localhost. (I think I read that when asked for the “common name” for the cert, you should put a period at the end, to make it a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN), like so: “localhost.”). It worked for me.
The “days” parameter can’t be larger than 825 on macOS, so that’s what I put.
openssl genrsa -out localhost.key 2048 openssl req -new -key localhost.key -out localhost.csr openssl x509 -req -in localhost.csr -CA myCA.pem -CAkey myCA.key -CAcreateserial -out localhost.crt -days 825 -sha256 -extfile localhost.ext
Import myCA.pem and localhost.crt into macOS Keychain Access.app
“Get Info” on both of them and trust them with “Always Trust”.
If ever you need a .pem file of the cert, just concat the .crt and .key like so:
cat localhost.crt localhost.key > localhost.pem
With these newly created and trusted certificates you can finally run Twisted again. Chrome will complain, but this time, you’ll be able to click through!
twistd -n web --path=. -c /Users/oelna/.certificates/localhost.crt -k /Users/oelna/.certificates/localhost.key --https=4433